Indepth Blog Post #5


In Depth 2019 has been going well so far, but there is lots left to do if I want to have anything for In-Depth night. For the past week and a bit my mentor has been extremely busy with UBC exams and wrapping up the semester, but I still was able to see him, twice. The first time I went to learn was all day on a Saturday, then the following Friday for our second meet. Friday was a little crazy since he was busy with multiple other projects while still trying to teach me. So far, I have built the general skeleton of the arm, and I have mounted 2 stepper motors. Take a look of the arm in action:

In the video, I am using something called a potentiometer which outputs an analog signal that has values from 0 – 1023. My code will tell the stepper motor (in reality the code gives instructions to the stepper motor driver that then operates the motor by quickly switching the polarity of the copper coils within the motor) to either go a certain direction if the potentiometer reads below 300, or if the other direction if the potentiometer reads above 700, if the potentiometer reads within 300-700, then the code will not send any instructions to the driver, meaning the motor will not turn. There is also a complicated mechanical part to the arm as well, but I will explain this in detail in future evaluations.


For the majority of our conversations, the white and black hat is used, since we are usually talking about very technical problems and solutions that require precise facts to be discussed and evaluated.

When I asked this question, I wore the blue hat, as I was setting up a conversation.

(Blue hat) Me: So why can’t we plug the stepper motor directly into the microcontroller, instead of using the driver?

(White hat) Mentor: That’s a great question, but because the stepper motor is simply just a few electromagnets and a shaft, it lacks the sophistication of say, a servo motor.

(Yellow / black hat) Me: Meaning we would have to manually change the polarity to initiate the steps (make the motor turn)?

(White hat) Mentor: Yes, which will be challenging, and hard to control. The driver basically takes the instructions we send it, via the microcontroller, and using an H bridge, will take the simpler instructions and use them to turn the stepper motor.

(he went on to explain more details using the white hat)

(Green hat) Me: Ahh, ok, I see that it makes much more sense to use a driver, but would it make any sense to try and create our own stepper motor driver?

(Red hat) Mentor: Probably not, a successful driver needs a lot of work to build and could take up a lot of valuable time.

(Black hat) Me: So why spend all that time when you can grab one on Amazon for a few bucks.

Mentor: Exactly.



Here is my code, see if you can find the statements which read the potentiometer values:

const int stepPin = 9;
const int dirPin = 8;
int customDelay,customDelayMapped; // Define variables
bool r = false;
int tim;
int s = 300;
void setup() {
int direktion (){
if (analogRead(A0)< 300){ //here is a line that reads the potentiometer
 digitalWrite(dirPin,LOW); //Enables the motor to move in a particular direction
  digitalWrite(stepPin, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(stepPin, LOW);
 if (analogRead(A0) > 700){ // here is the second line that reads the potentiometer
  r = true;
 digitalWrite(dirPin,HIGH); //Enables the motor to move in a particular direction
  digitalWrite(stepPin, HIGH);
  digitalWrite(stepPin, LOW);
    r = false;
    if (r == true){
void loop() {
direktion ();
int speedUp() {
 int tim = analogRead(A0);
 int newCustom = map(tim, 0, 1023, 0, 1023);
  return newCustom;

Canada is not postnational

“We took in an estimated 300,000 newcomers in 2016, including 48,000 refugees, and we want them to become citizens” (Charles Foran, 2017). This statement supports that Canada is a country, full of diverse, ethnic nations that make up and share our core identity So no, Canada is not a postnational state, rather a country, with many nations within the country, because if we have no core identity, then Canada is not Canada.


Over centuries, many people have worked and fought for Canada. Canada started as a group of nations, slowly coming together for independence. So what do all of us Canadians share? What is our ‘core identity’? Independence and multiculturalism is our core identity. When the different parts of Canada came together, we changed from colonies of the British, to our own country. Multiple nations all forming under one name. Without a core identity, if we are merely a postnational state, then we are just colonies under the British rule, housing for separate cultures. “McDonald believes being Canadian is like being a member of a community, or a big family,” meaning that all Canadians are not on their own and that to be in the same family, we share a core identity (Douglas Todd, 2016). When I hear that “There is no core identity, no mainstream in Canada,” I think of a country where cultures come to live, on their own(Justin Trudeau, 2015). Canada is not a place for introvert cultures, it is a place for many different cultures and nations to live, and interact with one another, sharing their values and identities to prolong Canada’s multicultural identity.


Canada is a place for all cultures, to live and contribute to making Canada a better place, to contribute to Canada’s core identity, being our multiculturalism. So no, Canada is far from being a postnational state, it is a country that is home to various nationxs who contribute to Canada’s core identity, that is why “75 per cent of residents believe there is a “unique Canadian culture.” (Douglas Todd, 2016)